There has been limited research on employee motivation factors in the African context. A recent Nigerian study looked to address this by examining the role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors on the commitment and performance of employees in the Nigerian Beverages industry. The results found that various intrinsic, extrinsic and social motivation factors are strongly related to employee commitment and performance. The results also indicated that the absence of motivational incentive may lead to negative employee behaviours.
Key Topics: Motivation; Commitment; Performance; Reward
Title of Reviewed Article: Motivational factors as determinants of employee commitment and performance enhancement in profit oriented firms: a survey of selected brewery manufacturing companies in Nigeria
Researchers: Sev Joseph Teryima, Alabar Terseer Timothy, Avanenge Faajir, Emakwu John and Ugba Vivien (Benue State University).
Publication: International Journal of Business and Economic Development, 2016, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 112 - 129.
Setting the Scene
Central to the success of most businesses is the motivation, performance and commitment of their employees, and as such eliciting high levels of these behaviours from employees is an important challenge for companies. Research supports the idea that company objectives are often unattainable without employees’ strong motivation and performance (e.g. Bateman & Snell, 1996; Dugguh, 2008).
Yalokwu (2006) described motivation as the factors that direct, sustain, and energize an individual’s effort. While Mullins (1996) categorized the motivational needs of employees into three primary categories: extrinsic motivation relating to tangible rewards such as compensation and benefits; intrinsic motivation relating to intangible psychological rewards such as receiving recognition and engaging in challenging work; and social motivation such as strong work relationships.
In this study the researchers looked to examine the impact of motivation on the commitment and performance of employees, and to examine the effects of motivation on employee frustration. As such, the researchers put forward two primary research questions with they investigated, which were:
Hypothesis 1: “Motivational factors have no significant impact on employee commitment and
performance enhancement in profit oriented firms in Nigeria.”
Hypothesis 2: “Motivational factors have not produced significant effects on employee frustration among the profit oriented firm in recent years in Nigeria.”
How the research was conducted
The researchers focused on the Brewery Manufacturing sector in Nigeria, collecting data relating to the management staff populations from six Breweries companies in Nigeria, which were Guinness Nigeria Plc, consolidated Breweries Plc, Nigeria Breweries Plc, Bendel Breweries Limited, Sona Breweries Plc, and Benue Breweries Limited.
A questionnaire, which was developed by the researchers, was completed by 280 management employees from these companies. The questionnaire contained questions relating to motivational factors (extrinsic, intrinsic and social factors), commitment, and performance.
Key Research Findings
Hypothesis 1 asserted that motivational factors have no significant effect on employee commitment and performance. The results of the study found that motivational factors have a strong relationship with both commitment and performance. The majority of respondents across all six companies indicated that they agreed or strongly agreed that motivational factors are adequate in their organizations to drive employee commitment and performance enhancement. As a result of these finding Hypothesis 1 was not supported.
In relation to Hypothesis 2, which stated that motivational factors have no significant effect on employee frustration, the results indicate that motivational factors have a strong relationship with employee frustration, with the majority of respondents agreeing or strongly agreeing that inadequate motivation and poor management systems led to employee frustration in their organizations, thus Hypothesis 2 was not supported.
The results indicate that Brewery manufacturing companies in Nigeria use, what they perceive to be, adequate motivational tools which improve employee commitment and performance while limiting employee frustration.
The questionnaire feedback indicated that companies are using various incentives to good effect, such as attractive compensation levels and benefits which act as extrinsic motivators, along with intrinsic motivators such a good work environment, job development and job rotation. In addition, social motivators are employed such as cohesive work groups.
Also, what is clear from the results is that companies have looked to ensure jobs are designed clearly, with a focus on core job dimensions such as task identity, autonomy, skill variety, task significance and feedback, in an effort to elicit strong motivation, commitment and performance from employees.
The idea that programs such as those noted above would have a positive impact on various aspects of employee behaviour is consistent with previous research which emphasises the importance of companies creating a good environment and conditions that meet the expectations of employees (e.g. Langton, Robbins & Judge, 2011; Nwachukwu, 2011).
Organizational and Reward Implications
The results of this study validate prior research that emphasises the need for companies to provide a strong combination of intrinsic, extrinsic and social motivational incentives to employees in order to elicit good behaviours, with this study indicating the positive impact on motivation, performance and commitment, whilst limiting employee frustration.
Companies should be mindful that, as illustrated in this study, using a combination of motivators rather than over emphasising one particular motivator type, such as compensation, is likely to lead to the most positive outcomes. Additionally, in developing such a suite of motivators companies should, as always, take into account the unique nature of the company and its employees as opposed to attempting to implement an approach that has worked elsewhere. Once implemented, ongoing review and analysis by management is critical to ensure the motivators are appropriate over time.
This study gives a much needed African perspective on effective employee motivators. The results are broadly consistent with research in Western countries, suggesting cultural differences do not play a major role in what motivates employees. Future research would benefit from a similar review across a larger participant group and across other African countries in order to give a richer African perspective.
Source Article: Teryima, S. J., Timothy A. T., Faajir, A., John, E., &Vivien, U. (2016). Motivational factors as determinants of employee commitment and performance enhancement in profit oriented firms: a survey of selected brewery manufacturing companies in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Economic Development, 4(2), 112 - 129.
Published by: Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 112
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Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (1996). Management: Building Competitive Advantage, 4th Edition. Boston: Irwin McGraw Hill Publishers.
Dugguh, S. I. (2008). Management Theory and Practice. Makurdi: Oracle Business Limited
Mullins, L. J. (1996). Management and Organizational Behavior. Boston: Pitman Publishing.
Yalokwu, P. O. (2006). Fundamentals of Management. Lagos: African Centre for Management and Education.